FAQ

  • DVB-H (Digital Video Broadcasting – Handhelds)

    DVB-H is aimed for transmitting to handheld terminals the following services:

    • TV programs;
    • image data;
    • audio information;
    • textual data;
    • binary files.
  • History of DVB-H system engineering
    • DVB-H system – the newest creation of DVB standards
    • The activities on standardization DVB-H system was begun in Autumn, 2002 and finished on February 2002.
    • On November 2004, ETSI was published, the first correction of standard DVB-H system.
    • In 2003, many countries stated field test of DVB-H system.
  • DVB-H Standards Family
  • Motivation of DVB-H engineering
    • Demand of majority on getting news and video data streams on mobile phones.
    • All-round entering TV but absence of it on mobile phones.
    • Wide spread occurrence of mobile phones.
    • Potential usage of “2.5G/3G” type of equipment are very expensive.
    • Very good quality of functioning DVB-T system, even on mobile conditions.

    But additionally needs:
    • To solve the issue on energy saving of battery supply.
    • In any real conditions to provide mobile reception on  singly antenna.
  • Characteristic of DVB-H system
    • Based on DVB-T, full backward compatibility
    • Adds additional functions on support of handheld and mobile terminals reception.
    • Economy of battery feeding.
    • Combination of mobility with high speed data transmitting, with reception to the single antenna and with work in fixed-frequency network.
    • Stability to impulsive noise.
    • Raise general noise immunity.
    • Support of a main handover (without connection break).
  • Means of providing technical request to DVB-H system
    • Time slicing of datacome for energy conversation in receiver.
    • To use multiprotocol encapsulation with additional coded protection (MPE-FEC) to raise noise immunity and mobility.
    • Additional inteleaver with deep interleaver (I=12).
    • 4k broadcasting regime for flexible mobile reception (MFN, SFN).
    • Advance signally (TPS) system.
    • Input services from IP-protocols into MPE packets .
    • Opportunity joint usage of DVB-T multiplex with MPEG2 and DVB-H services standards.
    • Scheme of DVB-T modulation: 16-QAM, FEC 2/3 (1/2).
  • Peculiarity of DVB-H system’s work

    DVB-H system can work as аn independent broadcasting system or can be used on a physical layer of technical means of DVB-T digital ground TV broadcasting system.

    The delivery of content multimedia services can be done with two regimes:

    • streaming;
    • files transfer.
  • Frequency peculiarities of DVB-H system
    • Bands:
      III (174 – 230 MHz),
      IV (470 – 582 MHz),
      V (582 – 862 MHz)
      Registered for DVB-T systems.
    • 470 – 650 MHz band is recommended for reservation DVB-H system.
    • On higher frequencies handicapes are possible noises at teamwork with cellular transmitters GSM 900. 
  • Frequency peculiarities of DVB-H system
    • According to ECC REPORT 4 (Lisbon, January 2002) IV band is preferable for DVB-H system.
    • The frequency is enough low for extending to long distance and enough high avoid man made noise.
    • Doppler effect is lower than in a V band.
    • Antennas with available size.
  • Frequency peculiarities of DVB-H system
    • The option is entered into the standard on system DVB-T for work in channels with a strip of 5 MHz - outside TV of ranges.
    • In Europe independent use of system DVB-H in a L-range in a strip 1,452 - 1,492 GHz is supposed.
    • At use of a mode 4k the system allows to build unifrequent networks with diversity  transmitters on 33-35 km.
  • Spectral effectiveness of DVB-H system
    • In DVB-T/H system can be delivered to mobile terminals of 30-50 stream of video service through one radio channel with 8 MHz range.
    • It is 10 times more than TV system of standard clearness
  • Example for QVGA (320x240 pixel.), 25 frame/s, 250 Kbit/s
    DVB-H system channels
    DVB-H
    the main factors Number of services in multiplex
    5 MHz, L-band Режим 2k,
    Regime 2k, GI=1/4, QPSK, FEC 1/2, MPE-FEC ¾
    8
    8 МГц, Regime 8k, GI=1/8, QPSK, FEC 1/2, MPE-FEC 3/4 15
  • Time slicing and data carrousel
    • Instead of continuous data transmission as in DVB-T, in DVB-H  is used the mechanism of reception of packs of data within the limits of time slicing, it is a carrousel of IP-data broadcasting.
    • The receiver is staying idle for the most part of time, i.e. can be switched off by means of signaling management.
    • Result is the economy of a power consumption approximately on 90 % and more in some cases.
  • Principle of transmitting with time slicing
  • Example of time slicing
    • If the average speed of basic stream transmitting is 500 kbit/s,
    • The volume of a package of data MPE is equal to 2 Mbit and is continuously transferred for 4 s,
    • Maximal speed of transmitting in the system is 10 МBit/s,
    • At that time transmitting packages of MPE becomes 200 ms
    • The real winning is more than 90%.
  • Example of static carousel of data delivery
  • Example of dynamic carousel of data delivery
  • Structure of DVB-H system
  • Parity among a stream of transport packages, a stream of section MPE and an IP-stream
  • Model buffered data of hypothetical receiver DVB-H

    • 1 – transport stream;
    • 2 – transport stream without duplicate packs;
    • 3 – IP-datagram;
    • 4 – decapsulation  headings of useful loading under report RTP;
    • 5 - the coded data with constant speed of transfer;
    • 6 - an elementary stream of the decoded data.
  • DVB-H network transmitting
    • Typical use of DVB-H system – it is IP-data transmitting service (IP-DataCasting, IPDC) on handheld terminals.
    • In the center of the system is made various IP-streams, sending tp transmitting network.
    • IP-encapsulation is used for transmitting IP-streams to subscribers , carrying out time slicing to transfer MPE-FEC structures section.
    • The interactive operating mode is provided with system of cellular telecommunication UMTS or GPRS
  • Script of development

    For the next slides given examples of network configuration:

    1. Existent DVB-T network with simultaneous data com of DVB-H in a single multiplex.
    2. DVB-T and DVB-H hierarchical data com in single radio channel.
    3. DVB-H separated out network with OFDM 4k scheme of modulation.
  • Architectural system of DVB-H
  • DVB-T and DVB-H sharing MUX
  • DVB-T and DVB-H using hierarchical transmission
  • DVB-H dedicated network
  • Newtec firm
  • DiBcom firm
  • T-Systems Enterprise Services firm
  • Unique Broadband Systems Firm
  • UDcast firm
  • Coding content in H.264/MPEG 4.10 AVC standards
    • Joint МСЭ-Т/ИСО/МЭК H.264/MPEG-4 Part 10 AVC (H.264/AVC, ISO/IEC 14496-10:2005) standard is the newest available technology of coding and constructing audio-visual information.
    • Efficiency of compression at standard H.264/AVC approximately in 2 - 2,5 times more, than at standard MPEG-2 at equal quality of the coded material.
  • Peculiarities of H.264/AVC
    • At identical quality of the image standard H.264/AVC demands approximately twice smaller speed of a digital stream, than MPEG-2. It allows either to double number of programs of standard quality, nor to carry out transfer of programs ТHC.
    • Unlike from MPEG-2 standard, H.264/AVC allows to transfer images with the lowered sanction (1/16 standard sanctions) to very small speeds of a digital stream. It allows to organize transfer of TV programs of low clearness on mobile phones, a handheld computer, TV receiver of cars and etc.
  • Transportation to H.264/MPEG 4.10 AVC

    Transport level is not specified on MPEG-4 standard. Most of the time suggested the following variations of adaptation to the channel:

    1. Transportation composed of MPEG-2 transportation pocket. 
    2. Transportation with the help of IP-protocols.
  • Recommendation of Europe
    • According to EBU (Tech 3307 “Service Requirements for Free-to-Air High Definition Television Receivers”, Geneva, June 2005) report all new services of THC, set after July,2005 must use H.264/AVC or VC1 scheme of coding.
    • MPEG-2 burstiness should be used for transmitting, as it is shown on ETSI TS 101 154 certificate.
  • Who can help me to null radio-interferences, which interrupt reception of television and radio programs? What are the means of dejamming?

    1. Users of radio-frequency spectrum can make their requests to CEMC for detection of radio-interference sources and removing the interruption of the users radio-electronic equipment operation.

    2. CEMC receives and analyzes the requests to null the radio-interferences from natural persons, legal persons and radio-frequency agencies.

    3. The civil requests to null the radio-interferences, which interrupt reception of radio and television programs, can be sent to CEMC in written form or made by telephone.

    4. The radio-electronic equipment owners should make their requests in written form. CEMC receives the requests only from owners of registered and operating permitted radio-electronic equipment.

    5.Requests can be made in a free form. In the case of temporary radio-interferences, the request should include interference occurrence time slot.

  • What are the terms for examination of a request?

    1. The term for examination of a request begins from a day of reception and registration of a request in the CEMC, and ends when a radio-interference source is detected and removed.

    2. The terms for examination of a request to null radio-interferences are listed below:

    - If the detection of a radio-interference source is not needed, the term is 5 workdays;

    - If it necessary to find a radio-interference source, the term is 12 workdays.

    3. А there are some difficulties with detection of radio-interference sources, the terms for examination of a request could be extended up to 30 days. In that case the applicant has to be informed about the extension of the term.

    4. CEMC eliminates interferences in the LW, MW and SW ranges, only if the interrupted radio-programs signal is sent by radiobroadcasting stations oriented to cover this area. A well-reasoned reply concerning that must be sent to applicant.

    *CEMC eliminates interferences, which interrupt the reception of television programs and radio programs in the USW range, only if receiver is in the coverage area. A well-reasoned reply concerning that must be sent to applicant.

  • Evaluation of H.264/AVC codec (By Thomson firme data)
    September 2005y. the 2nd half of 2006y. the 2nd half of 2007y.
    Transmitting speed H.264/AVC HD, Mbit/s 8,4 – 12,6 6 – 9 5 – 7,6
    Gaining of H.264/AVC comparing with MPEG-2 30% 50% 58%
  • Satellite paths

    Transponder 36 МHz;
    bitrate for MPEG-2: 4,4 Мbit/s (ТSC), 18 Мbit/s (ТHC);
    bitrate for MPEG-4: 2,2 Мbit/s (ТSC),   9 Мbit/s (ТHC);

     

    DVB-S
    + MPEG-2
    DVB-S2
    + MPEG-4.10
    Number of TSC programs 7 21
    Number of THC programs 1-2 5
  • What are the penalties for using and sale of not registered radiotelephone extenders, such as VOJAGER, SENAO, BADA, SONY, NOKIA, MOTOROLA, HARVEST, etc.?

    The resolution of The Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Uzbekistan "About additional arrangements for promoting the efficiency of the radio-frequency spectrum usage. Organization and distribution of television programs and data communication" (dated 10.07.98, N293) reads as follows:

    Appendix N7, Point 14. If a radio-electronic equipment and high-frequency devices were manufactured or purchased by ministries, departments, enterprises, institutions and organizations, citizens of the Republic of Uzbekistan, foreign legal persons and stateless persons, without a proper license, it must be seized, until the administrative responsibility case will be investigated according to the law.

    The responsibility for illegal using, manufacture, designing, building, purchasing and selling of radio-electronic equipment and high-frequency devices is determined in the article 152 of the Administrative Code of Uzbekistan. It involves the liability for breakage and practicable seizure of above-mentioned device.

  • What radio-electronic devices do not need any permission to use them in the Republic of Uzbekistan?

    The list of radio-electronic equipment and high-frequency devices, which do not need any permission from Communications and Information Agency of Uzbekistan, to be imported and operated, was established in the decision N 83 (dated 25.08.98) of SCRF Uz.

    1. Sound and video-systems, which are allowed for sale through trading network (including sound and video-recording technique and reproducers; except radio-wave emitting devices).

    2. Hand-held transceivers operating in the 2696-27860 kHz, with capacity less than 5Watt.

    3. Radio-warning guard devices operating in the 18945-26965 kHz range, with capacity less than 2Watt.

    4. Cordless telephones with capacity less than 10mWatt (radiotelephone devices which extend the telephone network within a short distance).

    5.Cellular telephones for individual use.

    6.Industrial high-frequency devices with capacity of a loading device less than 96Watt.

    7.High-frequency medical equipment.

    8.Domestic high-frequency devices, which are allowed for sale through trading network (microwave ovens, UHF domestic devices).

  • What gives transferring to the digital dispersion?

    The main advantages:

    • standing quality at the cost of increasing noise immunity;
    • high quality of sound and image in the limit of specific technical features;
    • to increase effectiveness of the usage of radiofrequency spectrum and at the cost of using fixed-frequency network (FFN);
    • to reduce exploitation expenses - quantity and power of transmitter ( for TV program minimum 10 times);
    • to increase the quantity and variety of program;
    • possibility of offering the new services (video on demand, online news, etc).
    • Traditional methods of analog-digital transformation -  to transfer 1 TV program (it is impossible in the channel of 6-8 MHz) is necessary to transfer TV signal with a speed ~270 Mbit/s.
    • Modern technologies of image compression provide transfer 4-6 TV of «usual» programs or 1 programs of «high clearness» and 1-2 «usual» programs in the channel of 6-8 MHz with speed of 20 Mbit/s transfer. 
    • possibility to create «system of dispersion with services integration» (TV and ST program + INTERNET, video and etc.)
  • Countries, where DVB-H system was brought to the regular exploitation
    • Albania – national network, in 23.01.2007 was covered more than 50%.
    • Vietnam (Hanoy, Ho-sho-min) – from 21.12.2006 national network that is supposed to be ended during 2 years.
    • Finland – from 1.12.2006 – national network.
    • France – input is supposed during 2007 y.
    • Germany (Berlin, Postdam) – network was inputted from 30.08.2006 y.
    • Spain - input is supposed during 2007 y.
    • Italy – national network – in 22.07.2006 y. more than 2000 centers of population were covered.
    • Russia (Sverdlovsk) – test zone from November 2006 up to March 2007, input of exploitation is going to be on April 2007.
    • USA (Las Vegas) – inputted in 15.12.2006y.
    • South Africa (Johannesburg, Pretoria) – in the 1st quarter of 2007 is planned to input.
  • The organizations making research on Mobile TV and DVB-H system
  • Envivio MPEG-4 Encoding Solutions for Delivering Digital Television From Mobile to HD
  • ETSI standards to DVB-H system
    • ETSI EN 302 304 V1.1.1 (2004-11) Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB); Transmission System for Handheld Terminals (DVB-H) 
    • ETSI TS 102 470 V1.1.1 (2006-04) Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB); IP Datacast over DVB-H: Program Specific Information (PSI)/Service Information (SI)
    • ETSI TS 102 471 V1.2.1 (2006-11) Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB); IP Datacast over DVB-H: Electronic Service Guide (ESG) 
    • ETSI TS 102 472 V1.2.1 (2006-12) Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB); IP Datacast over DVB-H: Content Delivery Protocols 
    • ETSI TR 102 377 V1.2.1 (2005-11) Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB); DVB-H Implementation Guidelines 
    • ETSI TR 102 401 V1.1.1 (2005-05) Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB); Transmission to Handheld Terminals (DVB-H);Validation Task Force Report 
    • ETSI TR 102 469 V1.1.1 (2006-05) Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB); IP Datacast over DVB-H: Architecture 
    • ETSI TR 102 473 V1.1.1 (2006-04) Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB); IP Datacast over DVB-H: Use Cases and Services 
  • Transfer speed of DVB-H system
    Receiver type

    H.264/AVC
    level

    Video
    resolution

    Max. speed,
    Kbit/s
    Representative application 
    A 1 QCIF = 176 x
    144, 15 Гц
    128   UMTS Telephone
    B 1.2 CIF = 352 x
    288, 15 Гц
    384 Телефон
    UMTS, КПК
    C 2 CIF = 352
    x 288, 30 Гц
    2.000 Pocket receiver
    D 3 SDTV = 720
    x 576, 25 Гц
    10.000 TV
    E 4 HDTV = 1920
    x1080, 25 Гц
    20.000 TV 
  • DVB-T/H transmitting regime
    OFDM characteristics Regime
    2k 4k 8k
    Number of supporting (БПФ) 2048 4096 8192
    Number of modulated supporting 1705 3409 6817
    Number of useful supporting 1705 3409 6817
    Length of OFDM symbol, mks 224 448 896
    Length of protective interval, mks 7, 14,
    28, 56
    14, 28,
    56, 112
    28, 56,
    112, 224
    Carrier spacing, kGH 4,464 2,232 1,116
    Maximal distance between transmitter, km 17 33 67
  • Opportunities of H.264/AVC standard
    Use of script Resolution and frequency frames Transmitting speed, Kbit/s
    Mobile content 176x144, 10-
    15 fps
    50-60
    Internet / Standard clearness 640x480, 24
    fps
    1000-2000
    High clearness 1280x720, 24p 5000-6000
    Full high clearness 1920x1080,
    24p
    7000-8000
  • Manufactures of MPEG-4 equipment
    Company Equipment
    Envivio Inc. 4Caster HD3 – THC transmitting coder
    4Caster B3, 4Caster 3500 – TSC transmitting coder
    4View 4500, 4View 4010 – TSC professional decoder
    SAGEM IAD80-SD – STB for ТSC
    IAD80-HD – STB for ТHC
    SkyStream Networks Transcoder of MPEG-2 content into MPEG-4.
    The submodule of transcoder is a part of the equipment of head stations for satellite and cable networks DVB: Mediaplex-20 (48 channels) and iPlex (8 channels).
    StreamTel Corporation E264-HD - MPEG4 H.264 ТHC/ ТSC coder
    E264-SD - MPEG4 H.264 ТSC coder
    D264-HD - MPEG4 H.264 ASI ТHC/ ТSC decoder
    D264-SD - MPEG4 H/264 ASI ТSC decoder
    TANDBERG
    Television
    EN5990 - THC coder
    EN5930 - TSC coder
    Harmonic
    Inc.
    DiviCom Electra™ 5000 – multiservice coding platform (2 coders of ТSC, several coder THC)
    DiviCom MV 3500 – THC coder (1080i and 720p formats)
    DiviCom MV 100 – TSC coder
    DiviTrackIP – statistic multiplexer
    ProCipher IP Scrambler / Multiplexer– equipment of limited access
    NEOTION Transcoder from MPEG-2 to MPEG-4, realized as PCM/CIA cards for general interface
  • What is the order of acquisition and exploitation of radio electron means, meant for organization of interoffice network of data transmission on the base of Wi-Fi technology in the territory of Uzbekistan Republic?

    Due to the frequently asked questions about the order of acquisition and exploitation of radio electron means, meant for organization of interoffice network of data transmission on the base of Wi-Fi technology in the territory of Uzbekistan Republic, the Centre of electromagnetic compatibility interprets that currently the acquisition and exploitation of indicated REM are allowed on the assumption of drawing corresponding licensing documents at CEMC.

    The general order of drawing licensing documents is prescribed at “The Regulation about the order of regulation the use of radio frequency spectrum and radio electron means in the territory of Uzbekistan” (registered at UzRep MJ №1531-1 on 19.05.07).

    Thus, according to the regulation of UzRep SCRF №4/7 from 22.12.2005 and №3/5 from 06.10.2006, the use on a secondary basis of radio frequencies band of 2400-2483,5 MHz and 5250-5350 MHz for exploitation at intraoffice systems of data transmission on Wi-Fi technology without registration of private decisions of UzRep SCRF is authorized at conformity of technical characteristics specified in given regulation.

    In point of Wi-Fi networks the general order of registration of sanctions except for necessity of registration (under certain conditions) SCRF regulation on an opportunity of use of the equipment is kept by the concrete applicant. Besides it is necessary to note, that for organization Wi-Fi networks of data transmission it is necessary for owner of a network to issue the corresponding license in the Communication and Information Agency of Uzbekistan.

  • How can I get a topograpgic map with a scale 1:200000 that is necessary in different needs?
    Question:
    How can I get a topographic map with a scale1:200000 that is necessary in execution of “REM allocation project…”, according to requirements of regulation 32 “Regulation about an order of control of radiofrequency spectrum and radio electronic means utilization in the territory of Uzbekistan ” (registered by ministry of Justice on 7.12.2005 №1531)?
    Answer:
    1) REM allocation project can be carried out by specialized project organization, for example, “Alokaloyiha SUC” (tel. 2333215, 2416358)
    2) On the issues concerning purchase of maps with 1:200000 scales it is possible to address also in the State cartographical fund (tel. 2465506).
  • There are lots of free tele-channels in the city, i.e. having adjusted on their reception you can not see any transfer, however channel is not assigned us to use. Why?
    The zone of stirring influence of TV (or radio broadcasting) stations considerably exceeds a zone of service. For example, the transmitter that has capacity 100 Wt has a zone of service in radius of 11 km. And the distance on which it can create interference to reception of other radio stations, is about 111 km. At a choice of frequencies for the organization of an announcement in each item the main criterion is the opportunity of the new transmitter to work without mutual interference in the developed transferring network.
  • How to increase a coverage zone?
    A very big influence on a coverage zone makes transmitting antenna. Rise of the antenna above nearby houses can strongly increase a zone of service by 5 meters: it is equivalent to increase in capacity of the transmitter approximately in 10 times. The transmitter with 25 Wt amplifiers, at use of the antenna with factor of amplification 10 дБ is equal to the transmitter with radiation capacity 250 Wt.
    By consideration of a problem of increase in a cover zone nevertheless it is necessary to remember, that the maximal capacity of the used equipment is limited to the factor of electromagnetic compatibility and similar questions should be solved together with CEMC.
  • How far it is audible 5 Watt on VHF?

    There is no unequivocal answer to this question. If distance on which the station confidently is accepted makes 500 meters in city (on ground floors of houses), then in a countryside and at installation on a height this transmitter can be heard on distance of 30 kilometers and more. In real in city the covering of territory is about 5 km under condition of application of the good, highly lifted antenna systems and the receiver with good sensitivity turns out. At use of external reception aerials range of reception can increase considerably, down to 20 – 45 km.


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